Dystonia is a neurologic disorder characterized by sustained, repetitive, and patterned muscle contractions that produce twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.1 Dystonia can be generalized and affect many regions of the body, including the trunk and legs, or it can be relatively focal or segmental. Focal dystonia affects a single body part and includes cervical dystonia (CD; also known as spasmodic torticollis), blepharospasm (bilateral, involuntary, synchronous, forceful eye closure), oromandibular dystonia (OMD; forceful involuntary jaw opening or closing), laryngeal dystonia (LD; spasmodic dysphonia - strained or breathy voice), and limb dystonias (taskspecific focal dystonia such as writer’s cramp or other occupational cramps). Generalized dystonia is usually treated with orally administered medications, intrathecal baclofen infusions, or surgery such as ablation or high-frequency stimulation of the globus pallidus or thalamus.2

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical Diagnosis and Management of Dystonia
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9780203640487
ISBN (Print)1841843172, 9781841843179
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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