Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains the most common single infective cause of death following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-identical siblings, whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related disease is infrequent. We show here that MHC-unrestricted cytotoxic effector cells in the peripheral blood of BMT recipients are highly effective at killing EBV-infected target cells, but are inactive against CMV-infected target cells. Differential cytotoxicity is associated with disparate target structure expression. Although both EBV- and CMV-infected target cells express viral antigens, it is only those infected with EBV that express the adhesion molecule lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA1; CD11a/ 18). Thus, EBV-infected target cells are able to interact with the principal LFA1 ligand, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1; CD54), which is expressed on posttransplant peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) effector cells. CMV-infected target cells cannot utilize this ligand. Posttransplant cytotoxicity against EBV-infected target cells is abolished by target and effector cell blockade with monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to LFA1 and ICAM1, respectively, demonstrating the functional relevance of this additional ligand interaction. These results provide an illustration both of the importance and of the limitations of MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity in vivo and may explain the frequency of CMV disease and the relative rarity of EBV-related disease following allogeneic transplantation from MHC-matched siblings. The increased immunosuppression used following MHC-mismatched/ matched unrelated-donor BMT may cause this MHC-unrestricted defense mechanism to fail and may contribute to the greatly increased incidence of EBV lymphoproliferative syndrome in these patients.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|State||Published - 1992|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology