Body Weight Changes with β-Blocker Use: Results from GEMINI

Franz H. Messerli, David S.H. Bell, Vivian Fonseca, Richard E. Katholi, Janet B. McGill, Robert A. Phillips, Philip Raskin, Jackson T. Wright, Sripal Bangalore, Fred K. Holdbrook, Mary Ann Lukas, Karen M. Anderson, George L. Bakris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Scopus citations


Purpose: Patients with type 2 diabetes are commonly overweight, which can contribute to poor cardiovascular outcomes. β-blockers may promote weight gain, or hamper weight loss, and are a concern in high-risk patients. The current analysis of the Glycemic Effect in Diabetes Mellitus: Carvedilol-Metoprolol Comparison in Hypertensives (GEMINI) trial evaluates the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol tartrate on weight gain in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Methods: This prespecified secondary analysis of the GEMINI study (n=1106) evaluated change in body weight after 5 months. Results: Mean (±SE) baseline weights were 97.5 (±20.1) kg for carvedilol and 96.6 (±20.1) kg for metoprolol tartrate. Treatment difference (c vs m) in mean (±SE) weight change from baseline was -1.02 (±0.21) kg (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.43 to -0.60; P <.001). Patients taking metoprolol had a significant mean (±SE) weight gain of 1.19 (±0.16) kg (P <.001); patients taking carvedilol did not (0.17 [±0.19] kg; P =.36). Metoprolol tartrate-treated patients with body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 had a statistically significant greater weight gain than comparable carvedilol-treated patients. Treatment differences (c vs m) in the obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) and morbidly obese groups (BMI >40 kg/m2) were -0.90 kg (95% CI, -1.5 to -0.3; P =.002) and -1.84 kg (95% CI, -2.9 to -0.8; P =.001), respectively. Pairwise correlation analyses revealed no significant associations between weight change and change in HbA1c, HOMA-IR, or blood pressure. Conclusions: Metoprolol tartrate was associated with increased weight gain compared to carvedilol; weight gain was most pronounced in subjects with hypertension and diabetes who were not taking insulin therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)610-615
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2007


  • Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • Carvedilol
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Metoprolol
  • Weight
  • β-blockers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Body Weight Changes with β-Blocker Use: Results from GEMINI'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this