Biomimetic and immunomodulatory therapeutics as an alternative to natural exosomes for vascular and cardiac applications

Ramiro A. Villarreal-Leal, John P. Cooke, Bruna Corradetti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Inflammation is a central mechanism in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), where sustained oxidative stress and immune responses contribute to cardiac remodeling and impairment. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released by cells to communicate with their surroundings and to modulate the tissue microenvironment. Recent evidence indicates their potential as cell-free immunomodulatory therapeutics for CVD, preventing cell death and fibrosis while inducing wound healing and angiogenesis. Biomimetic exosomes are semi-synthetic particles engineered using essential moieties present in natural exosomes (lipids, RNA, proteins) to reproduce their therapeutic effects while improving on scalability and standardization due to the ample range of moieties available to produce them. In this review, we provide an up-to-date description of the use of exosomes for CVD and offer our vision on the areas of opportunity for the development of biomimetic strategies. We also discuss the current limitations to overcome in the process towards their translation into clinic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102385
Pages (from-to)102385
JournalNanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • Biomimetic
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cell therapy
  • Exosome
  • Extracellular vesicle
  • Immunomodulation
  • Humans
  • Immunomodulating Agents/chemistry
  • Exosomes/chemistry
  • Biomimetic Materials/chemistry
  • Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy
  • Fibrosis
  • Cell Communication/drug effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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