Biological, Psychiatric, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Factors of Poststroke Depression

Mario F. Dulay, Amber Criswell, Timea M. Hodics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Depression is the most common psychiatric condition that occurs after cerebrovascular accident, especially within the first year after stroke. Poststroke depression (PSD) may occur due to environmental factors such as functional limitations in daily activities, lower quality of life, or biological factors such as damage to areas in the brain involved in emotion regulation. Although many factors are hypothesized to increase the risk of PSD, the relative contribution of these factors is not well understood.

PURPOSE: We evaluated which cross-sectional variables were associated with increased odds of PSD in our adult outpatient stroke neuropsychology clinic population.

METHODS: The sample included 325 patients (49.2% female; mean age of 59-years old) evaluated at an average of 8.1 months after an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Variables included in logistic regression were stroke characteristics, demographics, psychosocial factors, comorbid medical problems, comorbid psychiatric conditions, and cognitive status. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to determine DSM-defined PSD and anxiety disorders. A standard neuropsychological test battery was administered.

RESULTS: PSD occurred in 30.8% of the sample. Logistic regression indicated that increased odds of PSD were associated with a comorbid anxiety disorder (5.9 times more likely to suffer from PSD, p < 0.001). Further, increased odds of PSD were associated with a history of depression treatment before stroke (3.0 times more likely to suffer from PSD), fatigue (2.8 times more likely), memory impairment (2.4 times more likely), and younger age at stroke (all p values < 0.006).

DISCUSSION: Results suggest that PSD is likely multifactorial and extends the literature by demonstrating that a comorbid anxiety disorder correlated strongest with PSD. Poststroke screening and treatment plans should address not only depression but comorbid anxiety.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5328
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number7
StatePublished - Mar 30 2023


  • cerebrovascular accident
  • memory loss
  • poststroke anxiety
  • poststroke depression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'Biological, Psychiatric, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Factors of Poststroke Depression'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this