Association of Income Status with Stroke in Non-Elderly Adults in the United States, 2012-2018

Ryan T. Nguyen, Safi U. Khan, Javier Valero-Elizondo, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Khurram Nasir

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Stroke is becoming increasingly prevalent among the non-elderly adults (<65 years of age) in the United States. Using the National Health Interview Survey database from 2012 to 2018, we examined the association of traditional risk factors, sociodemographic, cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) profile, family income, and educational attainment in young (18-44 years) and middle-aged (45-64 years) adults. CRF profiles were defined by the number of traditional risk factors with “Poor” (≥4 risk factors), “Average,” or “Optimal” (0-1). The study included 168,862 non-elderly adults (55% in young adults). Overall prevalence of stroke was 1.83% among the non-elderly (0.64% and 3.31% in young- and middle-aged adults, respectively). Adults with low family income, lesser education, and who were Non-Hispanic Blacks were more likely to have stroke. Those with poor CRF profiles exhibited a 3-4 times higher odds of stroke compared to those with optimal CRF profiles. Lower income status coupled with a poor CRF profile augmented the prevalence of stroke in non-elderly adults. This national survey of non-elderly US adults showed a correlation between lower income and education, both factors of SES, and stroke. When viewed together, there was an increasing stroke burden in the non-elderly with worsening CRF profile, income status, and educational attainment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101235
Pages (from-to)101235
JournalCurrent Problems in Cardiology
Issue number8
Early online dateApr 29 2022
StatePublished - Aug 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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