Individuals of South Asian (SA) ancestry are predisposed to a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Coronary artery calcium (CAC) volume and density can identify coronary plaque characteristics unique to SA that may provide important prognostic information to identify high risk individuals beyond traditional CAC scores. We used data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA). CAC density and volume were assessed according to established protocols. ASCVD risk was estimated using the pooled cohort equations (PCE). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were used to study the association between the PCE and advanced CAC measures, and between cardiovascular risk factors and CAC density and volume. Our analyses included 1,155 participants (mean age 57 (SD 9) years, 52% men) with information on advanced CAC measures. After multivariable-adjustment, the PCE was associated with both CAC density (β 0.24, 95% CI 0.12,0.35) and CAC volume (β 0.43, 95% CI 0.38,0.48). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was directly associated with CAC density while waist circumference was inversely associated with it. Body mass index, hypertension status, statin use, diabetes, and HOMA-IR were all directly associated with CAC volume. Estimated ASCVD risk was associated with both CAC volume and density. Different cardiometabolic risk factors are associated with CAC density and volume. Future longitudinal studies are required to demonstrate the interrelationship of advanced CAC measures and cardiovascular risk factors with incident ASCVD outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine