Association between a healthy cardiovascular risk factor profile and coronary artery calcium score: Results from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

Isabela M. Bensenor, Alessandra C. Goulart, Itamar S. Santos, Márcio S. Bittencourt, Alexandre C. Pereira, Raul D. Santos, Khurram Nasir, Ron Blankstein, Paulo A. Lotufo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Our goal was to evaluate cross-sectionally the association between ideal risk factor (IRF) profile and the presence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis measured as coronary artery calcium (CAC) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. Methods We included 4,077 participants with no prior history of cardiovascular disease aged 35 to 74 years who underwent CAC measurement. The 2010 Task Force of the American Heart Association cutoffs were used to define the ideal level of smoking, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, glucose/cholesterol levels, and body mass index. Results Participants were categorized according the number of IRF: 0 to 1 (n = 1,025, 25.1%), 2 (n = 1,200, 29.4%), 3 to 4 (n = 1,551, 38.1%), or 5 to 7 (n = 301, 7.4%). Compared to individuals with 0 to 1 IRF, the odds ratio of participants with 2 IRFs presenting with CAC >0 (compared to 0), ≥100 (compared to <100), and ≥400 (compared to <400) was 0.75 (95% CI 0.62-0.91), 0.64 (0.49-0.84), and 0.75 (0.49-1.15), respectively. Similarly, the odds ratios of CACs >0, ≥100, and ≥400 in individuals with 3 to 4 IRFs were 0.59 (95% CI 0.48-0.71), 0.46 (0.34-0.62), and 0.50 (0.30-0.83), respectively, and, for individuals with 5 to 7 IRFs, were 0.36 (95% CI 0.24-0.56), 0.22 (0.09-0.55), and 0.20 (0.03-1.45), respectively. Conclusions Subjects with an IRF profile have lower CAC when compared to subjects with fewer controlled risk factors. However, even among individuals with 5 to 7 IRFs, it is possible to find a CAC higher than zero reflecting that measures of IRF do not fully account for all factors that resulted in coronary artery disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-59
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Heart Journal
Volume174
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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