Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. MR is classified as primary (organic) if it is due to an intrinsic valve abnormality, or secondary (functional) if the etiology is because of remodeling of left ventricular geometry and/or valve annulus. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the initial modality for MR evaluation. Parameters used for the assessment of MR include valve structure, cardiac remodeling, and color and spectral Doppler. Quantitative measurements include effective regurgitant orifice area, regurgitant volume, and regurgitant fraction. Knowledge of advantages and limitations of echo-Doppler parameters is essential for accurate results. An integrative approach is recommended in overall grading of MR as mild, moderate, or severe since singular parameters may be affected by several factors. When the mechanism and/or grade of MR is unclear from the TTE or is discrepant with the clinical scenario, further evaluation with transesophageal echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is recommended, the latter emerging as a powerful MR quantitation tool.
- Cardiac magnetic resonance
- Mitral regurgitation
- Mitral valve
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine