Assessing the learning curve for the acquisition of laparoscopic skills on a virtual reality simulator

Vadim Sherman, L. S. Feldman, D. Stanbridge, R. Kazmi, G. M. Fried

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


Background: The aim of this study was to develop summary metrics and assess the construct validity for a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator (LapSim) by comparing the learning curves of three groups with different levels of laparoscopic expertise. Methods: Three groups of subjects ('expert', 'junior', and 'naïve') underwent repeated trials on three LapSim tasks. Formulas were developed to calculate scores for efficiency ('time-error') and economy of 'motion' ('motion') using metrics generated by the software after each drill. Data (mean ± SD) were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: All three groups improved significantly from baseline to final for both 'time-error' and 'motion' scores. There were significant differences between groups in time error performances at baseline and final, due to higher scores in the 'expert' group. A significant difference in 'motion' scores was seen only at baseline. Conclusion: We have developed summary metrics for the LapSim that differentiate among levels of laparoscopic experience. This study also provides evidence of construct validity for the LapSim.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)678-682
Number of pages5
JournalSurgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2005


  • Laparoscopic simulator
  • Surgical training
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessing the learning curve for the acquisition of laparoscopic skills on a virtual reality simulator'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this