Applications of Brain–Machine Interface Systems in Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation

Anusha Venkatakrishnan, Gerard E. Francisco, Jose L. Contreras-Vidal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


Stroke is a leading cause of disability, significantly impacting the quality of life (QOL) in survivors, and rehabilitation remains the mainstay of treatment in these patients. Recent engineering and technological advances such as brain–machine interfaces (BMI) and robotic rehabilitative devices are promising to enhance stroke neurorehabilitation, to accelerate functional recovery and improve QOL. This review discusses the recent applications of BMI and robotic-assisted rehabilitation in stroke patients. We present the framework for integrated BMI and robotic-assisted therapies, and discuss their potential therapeutic, assistive and diagnostic functions in stroke rehabilitation. Finally, we conclude with an outlook on the potential challenges and future directions of these neurotechnologies, and their impact on clinical rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-105
Number of pages13
JournalCurrent Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2014


  • Brain–machine interfaces
  • Clinical trials
  • Functional recovery
  • Neuroplasticity
  • Neurorehabilitation
  • Robotic exoskeletons
  • Robotic-assisted rehabilitation
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation


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