For many nanoparticle applications it is important to understand dispersion in liquids. For nanomedicinal and nanotoxicological research this is complicated by the often complex nature of the biological dispersant and ultimately this leads to severe limitations in the analysis of the nanoparticle dispersion by light scattering techniques. Here we present an alternative analysis and associated workflow which utilises electron microscopy. The need to collect large, statistically relevant datasets by imaging vacuum dried, plunge frozen aliquots of suspension was accomplished by developing an automated STEM imaging protocol implemented in an SEM fitted with a transmission detector. Automated analysis of images of agglomerates was achieved by machine learning using two free open-source software tools: CellProfiler and ilastik. The specific results and overall workflow described enable accurate nanoparticle agglomerate analysis of particles suspended in aqueous media containing other potential confounding components such as salts, vitamins and proteins. Lay Description: In order to further advance studies in both nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, we need to continue to understand the dispersion of nanoparticles in biological fluids. These biological environments often contain a number of components such as salts, vitamins and proteins which can lead to difficulties when using traditional techniques to monitor dispersion. Here we present an alternative analysis which utilises electron microscopy. In order to use this approach statistically relevant large image datasets were collected from appropriately prepared samples of nanoparticle suspensions by implementing an automated imaging protocol. Automated analysis of these images was achieved through machine learning using two readily accessible freeware; CellProfiler and ilastik. The workflow presented enables accurate nanoparticle dispersion analysis of particles suspended in more complex biological media.
- automated imaging
- machine learning
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine