An update on tardive dyskinesia: From phenomenology to treatment

Olga Waln, Joseph Jankovic

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

206 Scopus citations


Tardive dyskinesia (TD), characterized by oro-buccal-lingual stereotypy, can manifest in the form of akathisia, dystonia, tics, tremor, chorea, or as a combination of different types of abnormal movements. In addition to movement disorders (including involuntary vocalizations), patients with TD may have a variety of sensory symptoms, such as urge to move (as in akathisia), paresthesias, and pain. TD is a form of tardive syndrome—a group of iatrogenic hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders caused by dopamine receptor-blocking agents. The pathophysiology of TD remains poorly understood, and treatment of this condition is often challenging. In this update, we provide the most current information on the history, nomenclature, etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, phenomenology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of TD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
StatePublished - 2013


  • Akathisia
  • Dopamine receptor-blocking agents
  • Dystonia
  • Neuroleptics
  • Tardive dyskinesia
  • Tardive syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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