An overview of spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)

Thomas Mader, C. Gibson, Neil Miller, Prem Subramanian, Nimesh Patel, Andrew Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Over the last decade, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Medicine Division has documented a variety of unusual physiological and pathological neuro-ophthalmic findings in astronauts during and following long duration space flight. These ndings include optic disc swelling, globe flattening, choroidal folds, and hyperopic shifts in refraction. Cephalad fluid shift has been proposed as a possible unifying etiology, but the specific mechanism responsible for these changes remains obscure. This manuscript reviews the history, clinical findings, and potential neurophysiologica l etiologies for spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S206-S211
Number of pages5
JournalNeurology India
Issue number8
StatePublished - May 1 2019


  • Choroidal folds
  • globe flattening
  • hyperopic shift
  • long-duration spaceflight
  • microgravity
  • optic disc swelling
  • spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome Key Message: Physiological and pathological neuro-ophthalmic findings occurring in astronauts during and following long-duration space flight are reviewed.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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