An Overview of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Associated Common Neurological Complications: Does Aging Pose a Challenge?

Anantha Ram Nookala, Joy Mitra, Nitish S. Chaudhari, Muralidhar L. Hegde, Anil Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


With increasing survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the manifestation of heterogeneous neurological complications is also increasing alarmingly in these patients. Currently, more than 30 of about 40 million HIV-1 infected people worldwide develop central nervous system (CNS)-Associated dysfunction, including dementia, sensory, and motor neuropathy. Furthermore, the highly effective antiretroviral therapy has been shown to increase the prevalence of mild cognitive functions while reducing other HIV-1-Associated neurological complications. On the contrary, the presence of neurological disorder frequently affects the outcome of conventional HIV-1 therapy. Although, both the children and adults suffer from the post-HIV treatment-Associated cognitive impairment, adults, especially depending on the age of disease onset, are more prone to CNS dysfunction. Thus, addressing neurological complications in an HIV-1-infected patient is a delicate balance of several factors and requires characterization of the molecular signature of associated CNS disorders involving intricate cross-talk with HIV-1-derived neurotoxins and other cellular factors. In this review, we summarize some of the current data supporting both the direct and indirect mechanisms, including neuro-inflammation and genome instability in association with aging, leading to CNS dysfunction after HIV-1 infection, and discuss the potential strategies addressing the treatment or prevention of HIV-1-mediated neurotoxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S169-S193
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue numbers1
StatePublished - 2017


  • AIDS
  • cognitive dysfunction
  • dementia
  • genome instability
  • human immunodeficiency virus type 1
  • neurodegeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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