An innovative universal protocol for orthognathic surgery three-dimensional virtual simulation

F. Melhem-Elias, B. A.Q. Reis, F. A.C. Afonso, M. D.A. Barretto, M. C.Z. Deboni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this technical note is to describe a protocol for three-dimensional virtual simulation of orthognathic surgery that has been designed to be easily implemented, without the need for any special clinical apparatus, software brand, or computed tomography sequence. The protocol comprises innovative concepts and simplified steps for image segmentation, creation of a composite skull, control of the condylar position, and sequencing of bimaxillary surgery. This protocol was applied by the developers in about 2000 cases performed between 2015 and 2022, and has become quite popular among local surgeons. Previous preliminary studies have shown that it meets the accuracy standards for clinical use, although further studies with larger numbers of patients are desirable for additional validation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)691-695
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • Computer-assisted surgery
  • Facial asymmetry
  • Orthognathic surgery
  • Three-dimensional imaging
  • Three-dimensional printing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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