## Abstract

It is important to determine quantitatively the internal carrier loss arising from heating and barrier height variation in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting quantum well laser (VCSEL). However, it is generally difficult to realize this goal using purely theoretical formulas due to difficulty in deriving the parameters relating to the quantum well structure. In this paper, we describe an efficient approach to characterizing and calculating the carrier loss due to the heating and the barrier height change in the VCSEL. In the method, the thermal carrier loss mechanism is combined with gain measurement and calculation. The carrier loss is re-characterized in a calculable form by constructing the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current using the measured gain data and then substituting them for the quantum well-related parameters in the formula. The result can be expressed as a product of an exponential weight factor linked to the barrier height change and the difference between the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current. The gain variation at cavity frequency due to thermal carrier loss and gain detuning processes is measured by using an AlInGaAs-AlGaAs VCSEL structure. This work provides a useful approach to analysing threshold and loss properties of the VCSEL, particularly, gain offset design for high temperature operation of VCSELs.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 014213 |

Journal | Chinese Physics B |

Volume | 19 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2010 |

## Keywords

- Quantum well
- Semiconductor laser
- Thermal carrier loss
- Vertical cavity surface emitting laser

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Physics and Astronomy(all)