The histiocytoses are rare disorders of antigen-processing phagocytic or antigen-presenting cells. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) can be curative of these disorders. We report a series of five children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (n = 2) or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (n=3), who received allogeneic BMT with a total body irradiation (TBI)-containing regimen (TBI, cytarabine, and cyclophosphamide) at our institution between 1995 and 2000. One of these patients received busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide for the first of two BMTs. All grafts except one (a matched sibling-donor graft) were T-cell-depleted grafts from unrelated donors. All received cyclosporine graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis; the recipient of the matched sibling graft also received methotrexate. Three patients engrafted at a median of 24 days after transplantation. The patient who did not receive TBI experienced primary graft failure and recurrent disease. After the TBI-containing conditioning regimen was given, a second transplant engrafted on day + 17. One patient with concurrent myelodysplastic syndrome died of toxicity on day + 33 without evidence of engraftment. No acute or chronic GvHD was observed. Four patients survive disease-free, a median of 63 months after transplantation, all with Lansky performance scores of 100. We conclude that a conditioning regimen containing TBI but not etoposide is effective in allogeneic BMT for children with histiocytic diseases.
- Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
- Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
- Langerhans cell histiocytosis
- Total body irradiation
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