Mitigating the foreign body response (FBR) to implantable medical devices (IMDs) is critical for successful long-term clinical deployment. The FBR is an inevitable immunological reaction to IMDs, resulting in inflammation and subsequent fibrotic encapsulation. Excessive fibrosis may impair IMDs function, eventually necessitating retrieval or replacement for continued therapy. Therefore, understanding the implant design parameters and their degree of influence on FBR is pivotal to effective and long lasting IMDs. This review gives an overview of FBR as well as anti-FBR strategies. Furthermore, we highlight recent advances in biomimetic approaches to resist FBR, focusing on their characteristics and potential biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere10300
Pages (from-to)e10300
JournalBioengineering and Translational Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • biomimetic
  • foreign body response
  • immune modulation
  • implantable devices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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