Balo concentric sclerosis (BCS) is a rare, atypical demyelinating disease, which may rapidly progress to become severe and fatal. Advanced neuroimaging has proven helpful for early diagnosis, classification, prognostication, and monitoring of progression in multiple sclerosis, but has not been fully explored in BCS. We present the case of a 27-year-old woman with BCS in whom advanced neuroimaging was used to correlate the evolution of disease with clinical findings over the course of 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and arterial spin labeling cerebral perfusion were obtained at presentation (Day 0), and at Day 67 and Day 252. Imaging features include multilayered concentric ring lesion, reduced diffusion along the rim, hypoperfusion with possible mild central hyperperfusion, and MRS findings of increased choline, decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and possible presence of lactate and/or lipid peak. DTI tractography and relative apparent diffusion coefficient analyses correlated with clinical symptoms and may help to determine extent of white matter tract injury and prognosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging