Advanced intraoperative imaging guidance for inside-out central venous recanalization using a novel catheter access system

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4 Scopus citations


Background: The novel Surfacer Inside-Out recanalization technique facilitates right-sided central venous access in occluded vessels but carries a risk of arterial and pleural injuries. This article demonstrates how an advanced intraoperative imaging protocol can help to avoid these potential complications. Methods: This retrospective review included patients undergoing the Surfacer Inside-Out central venous recanalization procedure between December 2017 and October 2021. The study sample comprised patients included in the SAVE-US trial at our site as well as patients treated after US Food and Drug Administration approval of the device. All procedures were performed using intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) angiography to map out the trajectory of the device through the mediastinum and supraclavicular space with fusion imaging for guidance. Procedures were aborted if CBCT findings predicted injury to arterial or respiratory structures. The intraoperative coronal and sagittal orientation of the device was compared to preoperatively predicted trajectory. Results: A total of 17 procedures were performed in 16 patients with end-stage renal disease and a mean age of 61 ± 11 years. Most patients presented a type 3 central venous occlusion (9/15). Successful recanalization was achieved in 14 of the 17 cases (82.4%) with no intraoperative complications. The procedure had to be aborted in 3 of the 17 cases based on intraoperative CBCT findings, which projected the device to perforate the right pleural space in one patient, the trachea and right subclavian artery in another, and the innominate artery in the third patient. The total radiation dose per procedure was 753 ± 346 mGy and the mean procedural time was 101.6 ± 29.7 minutes. A median of 2 (range, 1-5) intraoperative CBCT scans were performed per patient and accounted for 70% of the total radiation dose. Statistical analysis showed intraoperative CBCT findings to differ significantly from preoperative predicted values. Conclusions: The nonsteerable and penetrating nature of the Surfacer device may lead to serious complications when performed under fluoroscopic guidance alone. Intraoperative CBCT with fusion overlay enhances the safety and effective use of this device and inside out crossing technique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1334-1342.e1
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Central venous catheters
  • Central venous occlusion
  • Central venous recanalization
  • Inside-out technique
  • Tunneled dialysis catheter
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Catheters, Indwelling/adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  • Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects
  • Veins
  • Aged
  • Retrospective Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Surgery


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