Background: Controversy exists regarding the role and extent of operation for patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and hypergastrinemia. Methods: An institutional MEN1 database was reviewed to identify patients with evidence of hypergastrinemia. The relationship of extent of resection to achievement of eugastrinemia was evaluated. Results: Operation was performed in 20 patients with MEN1 and hypergastrinemia with a median follow-up of 71 months. Duodenal gastrinomas were identified in 85% of patients who underwent duodenal evaluation. Nodal metastases were identified in 80%. Patients who underwent anatomic regional lymph node dissection (RLND) had a median of 16 nodes removed, vs 1 in patients who did not undergo a formal regional lymphadenectomy. Eugastrinemia was achieved in 12 patients (60%), and 8 (40%) had persistent hypergastrinemia. Compared with patients with persistent hypergastrinemia, patients rendered eugastrinemic more often underwent duodenal evaluation (11/12 vs 2/8; P =.01) and RLND (11/12 vs 3/8; P =.03); there was no relationship between pancreatic resection and achievement of eugastrinemia (P =.32). Conclusion: For patients with MEN1-associated hypergastrinemia selected for operative treatment, a strategy including duodenal evaluation and anatomic regional lymphadenectomy is associated with long-term eugastrinemia. In contrast, the extent of pancreatic resection should be dictated by the extent and distribution of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, rather than by the presence of hypergastrinemia.
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