Academic Productivity of United States Neurosurgeons Trained Abroad

Adam Y. Li, Zerubabbel K. Asfaw, Roshini Kalagara, Alexander J. Schupper, Kurt A. Yaeger, Faizaan Siddiqui, William Shuman, Theodore C. Hannah, Muhammad Ali, John R. Durbin, Lisa Genadry, Isabelle M. Germano, Tanvir F. Choudhri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Previous research in neurosurgery has examined academic productivity for U.S. medical graduates and residents. However, associations between scholarly output and international medical education, residency training, and fellowship training are scarcely documented. Methods: We identified 1671 U.S. academic neurosurgeons in 2020 using publicly available data along with their countries of medical school, residency, and fellowship training. Using Scopus, h-index, number of publications, and number of times publications were cited were compiled. Demographic, subspeciality, and academic productivity variables were compared between training locations using univariate analysis and multivariable linear regression. Results: Of the current neurosurgery faculty workforce, 16% completed at least 1 component of their training abroad. Canada was the most represented international country in the cohort. Academic productivity for neurosurgeons with international medical school and/or international residency did not significantly differ from that of neurosurgeons trained in the United States. Neurosurgeons with ≥1 U.S. fellowships or ≥1 international fellowships did not have higher academic productivity than neurosurgeons without a fellowship. However, dual fellowship training in both domestic and international programs was associated with higher mean h-index (β = 6.00, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 10.98, P = 0.02), higher citations (β = 2092.0, 95% confidence interval 460.1 to 3724.0, P = 0.01), and a trend toward higher publications (β = 36.82, 95% confidence interval −0.21 to 73.85, P = 0.051). Conclusions: Neurosurgeon scholarly output was not significantly affected by international training in medical school or residency. Dual fellowship training in both a domestic and an international program was associated with higher academic productivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e567-e575
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Academic neurosurgery
  • Bibliometrics
  • Citation number
  • h-index
  • International training
  • Publication number

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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