A three-part system for refining intraocular lens power calculations

Jack T. Holladay, Kathryn H. Musgrove, Thomas C. Prager, John W. Lewis, Thomas Y. Chandler, Richard S. Ruiz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

658 Scopus citations


A three-part system that determines the correct power for an intraocular lens (IOL) to achieve a desired postoperative refraction is presented. The three components are (1) data screening criteria to identify improbable axial length and keratometry measurements, (2) a new IOL calculation formula that exceeds the current accuracy of other formulas for short, medium, and long eyes, and (3) a personalized 'surgeon factor' that adjusts for any consistent bias in the surgeon's results, from any source, based on a reverse solution of the new formula; the reverse solution uses the postoperative stabilized refraction, the dioptric power of the implanted IOL, and the preoperative corneal and axial length measurements to calculate the personalized surgeon factor. The improved accuracy of the new formula was proven by performing IOL power calculations on 2,000 eyes from 12 surgeons and comparing the results to seven other currently used formulas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-24
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1988


  • A-constant
  • anterior chamber depth
  • data screening
  • intraocular lens power calculation
  • regression formula
  • reverse solution
  • surgeon factor
  • theoretical formula

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems


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