A Phenomapping Tool and Clinical Score to Identify Low Diuretic Efficiency in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

Matthew W. Segar, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Kershaw V. Patel, Javed Butler, Ashwin K. Ravichandran, Mary Norine Walsh, Du Wayne Willett, Gregg C. Fonarow, Mark H. Drazner, Robert J. Mentz, Jennifer Hall, Maryjane A. Farr, S. Susan Hedayati, Clyde Yancy, Larry A. Allen, W. H.Wilson Tang, Ambarish Pandey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Individuals with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) have a varying response to diuretic therapy. Strategies for the early identification of low diuretic efficiency to inform decongestion therapies are lacking. Objectives: The authors sought to develop and externally validate a machine learning–based phenomapping approach and integer-based diuresis score to identify patients with low diuretic efficiency. Methods: Participants with ADHF from ROSE-AHF, CARRESS-HF, and ATHENA-HF were pooled in the derivation cohort (n = 794). Multivariable finite-mixture model-based phenomapping was performed to identify phenogroups based on diuretic efficiency (urine output over the first 72 hours per total intravenous furosemide equivalent loop diuretic dose). Phenogroups were externally validated in other pooled ADHF trials (DOSE/ESCAPE). An integer-based diuresis score (BAN-ADHF score: blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, natriuretic peptide levels, atrial fibrillation, diastolic blood pressure, hypertension and home diuretic, and heart failure hospitalization) was developed and validated based on predictors of the diuretic efficiency phenogroups to estimate the probability of low diuretic efficiency using the pooled ADHF trials described earlier. The associations of the BAN-ADHF score with markers and symptoms of congestion, length of stay, in-hospital mortality, and global well-being were assessed using adjusted regression models. Results: Clustering identified 3 phenogroups based on diuretic efficiency: phenogroup 1 (n = 370; 47%) had lower diuretic efficiency (median: 13.1 mL/mg; Q1-Q3: 7.7-19.4 mL/mg) than phenogroups 2 (n = 290; 37%) and 3 (n = 134; 17%) (median: 17.8 mL/mg; Q1-Q3: 10.8-26.1 mL/mg and median: 35.3 mL/mg; Q1-Q3: 17.5-49.0 mL/mg, respectively) (P < 0.001). The median urine output difference in response to 80 mg intravenous twice-daily furosemide between the lowest and highest diuretic efficiency group (phenogroup 1 vs 3) was 3,520 mL/d. The BAN-ADHF score demonstrated good model performance for predicting the lowest diuretic efficiency phenogroup membership (C-index: 0.92 in DOSE/ESCAPE validation cohort) that was superior to measures of kidney function (creatinine or blood urea nitrogen), natriuretic peptide levels, or home diuretic dose (DeLong P < 0.001 for all). Net urine output in response to 80 mg intravenous twice-daily furosemide among patients with a low vs high (5 vs 20) BAN-ADHF score was 2,650 vs 660 mL per 24 hours, respectively. Participants with higher BAN-ADHF scores had significantly lower global well-being, higher natriuretic peptide levels on discharge, a longer in-hospital stay, and a higher risk of in-hospital mortality in both derivation and validation cohorts. Conclusions: The authors developed and validated a phenomapping strategy and diuresis score for individuals with ADHF and differential response to diuretic therapy, which was associated with length of stay and mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)508-520
Number of pages13
JournalJACC: Heart Failure
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • acute heart failure
  • diuretic resistance
  • heart failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'A Phenomapping Tool and Clinical Score to Identify Low Diuretic Efficiency in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this