Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL3 protein is a nuclear protein. In this study, the molecular mechanism of the subcellular localization of UL3 was characterized by fluorescence microscopy in living cells. A nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES) were also identified. UL3 was demonstrated to target to the cytoplasm through the NES via chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM-1) dependent pathway, and to the nucleus through RanGTP-dependent mechanism. Heterokaryon assays confirmed that UL3 was capable of shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. These results demonstrate that the UL3 protein is a novel HSV-1 encoded nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein.
- Chromosomal region maintenance 1
- Nuclear export signal
- Nuclear localization signal
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