A modification to augmentation cystoplasty with catheterizable stoma for neurogenic patients: Technique and long-term results

Rose Khavari, Sophie G. Fletcher, Joceline Liu, Timothy B. Boone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the use of a modified Indiana continent urinary reservoir, the Indiana augmentation cystoplasty (IAC), for patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB). NGB with incontinence can be devastating for patients with neurologic illness. Augmentation cystoplasty with a continent catheterizable stoma creates a continent, low-pressure storage system, with catheterizable cutaneous stoma, leading to decreased urinary tract morbidity and increased quality of life. Methods: Retrospective chart review of the IAC procedure in a single center from 1993 to 2010 was performed and included subjects with NGB and minimum 1-year follow up. Patients' demographics, NGB diagnosis, surgery details, urodynamic findings, concurrent operations, complications, and continence outcomes were recorded. Results: Thirty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age at time of surgery was 39.8 years. Neurologic diagnoses included multiple sclerosis (n = 12), spina bifida (n = 9), and spinal cord injury (n = 14). Concurrent surgeries included: bladder neck closure (n = 3), pubovaginal sling (n = 4), hysterectomy (n = 3), artificial urinary sphincter (n = 1), and cystolithotomy (n = 1). Mean estimated blood loss was 461.8 mL. Short-term postoperative complications were prolonged ileus (n = 2), wound infection (n = 1), and transfusion (n = 1). Median follow-up was 31 months. Long-term complications occurred in 15 (44.1%) patients: recurrent urinary tract infections (n = 4), pyelonephritis (n = 1), pelvic abscess (n = 1), seroma (n = 1), bladder stones (n = 2), and stomal revision in (n = 4). All patients were continent at latest follow-up. Conclusion: This modification of the Indiana continent urinary reservoir is an excellent surgical option providing a low-pressure reservoir with a reliable continence mechanism and easily catheterizable stoma, with few complications or need for reoperation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)460-465
Number of pages6
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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