A Longitudinal Study of Risk Factors for Incident Albuminuria in Diabetic American Indians: The Strong Heart Study

Jiaqiong Xu, Elisa T. Lee, Richard B. Devereux, Jason G. Umans, Jonathan N. Bella, Nawar M. Shara, Jeunliang Yeh, Richard R. Fabsitz, Barbara V. Howard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Background: There have been no studies that use longitudinal data with more than 2 measurements and methods of longitudinal data analysis to identify risk factors for incident albuminuria over time more effectively. Study Design: Longitudinal study. Settings & Participants: A subgroup of participants in the Strong Heart Study, a population-based sample of American Indians, in central Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. Participants with diabetes without albuminuria were followed up for a mean of 4 years. Predictors: Age, sex, study center, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, triglyceride level, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking, hemoglobin A1c level, fasting glucose level, type of diabetes therapy, diabetes duration, plasma creatinine level, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR). Outcomes & Measurements: Albuminuria was defined as UACR of 30 mg/g or greater. Urine creatinine and albumin were measured by using the picric acid method and a sensitive nephelometric technique, respectively. Results: Of 750 and 568 participants with diabetes without albuminuria and with normal plasma creatinine levels at the first and second examinations, 246 and 132 developed albuminuria by the second and third examinations, respectively. Incident albuminuria was predicted by baseline UACR, fasting glucose level, systolic blood pressure, plasma creatinine level, study center, current smoking, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and antidiabetic medications. UACR of 10 to 30 mg/g increased the odds of developing albuminuria 2.7-fold compared with UACR less than 5 mg/g. Limitations: Single random morning urine specimen. Conclusions: Many risk factors identified for incident albuminuria can be modified. Control of blood pressure and glucose level, smoking cessation, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may reduce the incidence of albuminuria.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)415-424
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2008


  • albuminuria
  • American Indians
  • incidence
  • Longitudinal analysis
  • risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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