Bis(3′-indolyl)methane (DIM) is a metabolite of the phytochemical indole-3-carbinol, and both compounds exhibit a broad spectrum of anticancer activities. We have developed a series of synthetic symmetrical ring-substituted DIM analogues, including 5,5′-dibromoDIM, which are more potent than DIM as inhibitors of cancer cell and tumor growth. In colon cancer cells, 5,5′-dibromoDIM decreased cell proliferation and inhibited G 0-G1- to S-phase progression, and this was accompanied by induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in HT-29 and RKO colon cancer cells. Mechanistic studies showed that induction of p21 in both RKO (p53 wild-type) and HT-29 (p53 mutant) cells by 5,5′-dibromoDIM was Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) dependent, and induction of p53 in RKO cells was also KLF4 dependent. Analysis of the p21 promoter in p53-dependent RKO cells showed that 5,5′-dibromoDIM activated p21 gene expression through the proximal GC-rich sites 1 and 2, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that KLF4 and p53 bound to this region of the promoter, whereas in HT-29 cells unidentified upstream cis-elements were required for induction of p21. 5,5′-DibromoDIM (30 mg/kg/d) also inhibited tumor growth and induced p21 in athymic nude mice bearing RKO cells as xenografts, showing that ring-substituted DIM such as 5,5′-dibromoDIM represent a novel class of mechanism-based drugs for clinical treatment of colon cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research