3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) and its derivatives induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent upregulation of DR5

Maen Abdelrahim, Kristen Newman, Kathy Vanderlaag, Ismael Samudio, Stephen Safe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

169 Scopus citations

Abstract

3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM), ring-substituted DIMs and 1,1-bis(3′-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes (C-DIMs) inhibit growth of Panc-1 and Panc-28 pancreatic cancer cells. Although DIMs (diarylmethanes) and selected C-DIMs (triarylmethanes), such as the p-t-butyl derivative (DIM-C-pPhtBu), activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, respectively, this study shows that both DIM and DIM-C-pPhtBu induce common receptor-independent pathways. Both DIM and DIM-C-pPhtBu increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) staining and ER calcium release in Panc-1 cells, and this was accompanied by increased expression of glucose related protein 78 and C/EBP homologous transcription factor (CHOP/GADD153) proteins. Similar results were observed after treatment with thapsigargin (Tg), a prototypical inducer of ER stress. The subsequent downstream effects of DIM/DIM-C-pPhtBu- and Tg-induced ER stress included CHOP-dependent induction of death receptor DR5 and subsequent cleavage of caspase 8, caspase 3, Bid and PARP. Activation of both receptor-dependent and receptor-independent (ER stress) pathways by DIM and DIM-C-pPhtBu in pancreatic cancer cells enhances the efficacy and potential clinical importance of these compounds for cancer chemotherapeutic applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)717-728
Number of pages12
JournalCarcinogenesis
Volume27
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research

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