2-Year Clinical and Echocardiography Follow-Up of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement With the Transapical Intrepid System

Vinayak Bapat, Eric Weiss, Tanvir Bajwa, Vinod H. Thourani, Pradeep Yadav, Jeremy J. Thaden, D. Scott Lim, Michael Reardon, Sean Pinney, David H. Adams, Steven J. Yakubov, Thomas Modine, Simon R. Redwood, Antony Walton, Konstantinos Spargias, Angie Zhang, Michael Mack, Martin B. Leon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Thirty-day outcomes with the investigational Intrepid transapical (TA) transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) system have previously demonstrated good technical success, but longer-term outcomes in larger cohorts need to be evaluated. Objectives: The authors sought to evaluate the 2-year safety and performance of the Intrepid TA-TMVR system in patients with symptomatic, ≥moderate-severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and high surgical risk. Methods: Patient eligibility was determined by local heart teams and approved by a central screening committee. Clinical events were adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. Echocardiography was evaluated by an independent core laboratory. Results: The cohort included 252 patients that were enrolled at 58 international sites before February 2021 as part of the global Pilot Study (n = 95) or APOLLO trial (primary cohort noneligible + TA roll-ins, n = 157). Mean age was 74.2 years, mean STS-PROM was 6.3%, 60.3% were male, and 80.6% were in NYHA functional class III/IV. Most presented with secondary MR (70.1%), and nearly all had ≥moderate-severe MR (98.4%). All-cause mortality was 13.1% (30-day), 27.3% (1-year), and 36.2% (2-year). The 30-day ≥major bleeding event rate was 22.3%. Heart failure rehospitalization was 9.6% (30-day) and 36.2% (2-year). At 2 years, >50% of patients were alive with improvement in NYHA functional class (82.1%, class I/II), and all patients with available echocardiograms had ≤mild MR. Conclusions: This analysis represents the largest reported TA-TMVR experience with the longest follow-up in high-risk ≥moderate-severe MR patients. Early mortality and heart failure rehospitalizations were significant, exacerbated by early TA-related bleeding events; however, meaningful improvements in clinical outcomes and marked reductions in MR severity were observed through 2 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1440-1451
Number of pages12
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 24 2024


  • TMVR
  • mitral regurgitation
  • transapical
  • transcatheter mitral valve replacement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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