Bone marrow cytotoxicity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), an anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) drug, has been attributed to deoxyribonucleotide pool perturbations that might result in impaired DNA synthesis in normal bone marrow elements. We examined, in vitro, the effect of high, but clinically achievable and nontoxic, concentrations of 2'-deoxycytidine (dCyd) (≥ 100 μmol/L) on high-dose AZT mediated growth inhibition and intracellular biochemical perturbations in normal bone marrow progenitor cells. Colony formation by bone marrow progenitor cells in semisolid medium was significantly protected by dCyd against the inhibitory effects of co-administered, high concentrations of AZT (10 μmol/L). Also, dCyd significantly corrected AZT mediated depletion of intracellular thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) and dCyd triphosphate (dCTP) levels in normal bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC). Moreover, dCyd reduced the intracellular accumulation of AZT triphosphate (AZT-TP) and its DNA incorporation in BMMC. In contrast, co-administration of dCyd (100 μmol/L to 1 mmol/L) did not reverse AZT (10 μmol/L) mediated suppression of HIV infectivity in HUT-102 cells in culture, although a partial reduction in intracellular AZT-TP pools and its DNA incorporation as well as a correction of AZT mediated depletion of dTTP and dCTP pools was observed in these cells. These studies suggest that dCyd at high concentrations might ameliorate the bone marrow cytotoxicity of high-dose AZT without impairing its anti-HIV effect.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology