1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine-, mitoxantrone-, and paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells: improved method for detection of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation

Swapan Ray, Vidya Ponnathpur, Yue Huang, Caroline Tang, Mary Ella Mahoney, Ana Maria Ibrado, Gloria Bullock, Kapil Bhalla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations

Abstract

We investigated the ability of different doses and durations of exposure to the chemotherapeutic drugs 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C), mitoxantrone (MTN), and paclitaxel (taxol, TXL) to induce internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cells in suspension culture. At clinically achievable concentrations, all three drugs have been shown to induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. An improved method was developed for the isolation of pure genomic DNA and the detection of drug-induced intergenomic DNA and the detection of drug-induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in <1.0 μg of DNA sample by agarose gel electrophoresis. Morphologic evidence for apoptosis was determined by light microscopy following Wright staining, and cell viability was assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation was observed following exposure to 1.0 μM Ara-C for 4 h, which increased with 10 and 50 μM Ara-C. Incubation with 100 μM Ara-C produced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation starting at 3 h, which increased with longer periods of exposure to Ara-C. Utilizing a schedule of 1-h exposure followed by 3-h suspension in drug-free medium, 0.25 μM MTN was found to initiate DNA fragmentation, which increased with exposure to 1.0 and 5.0 μM MTN. However, identical treatment with higher concentrations of MTN resulted in random DNA degradation. Alternatively, continuous exposure to 1.0 μM MTN for 3 h was necessary to initiate internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. This increased with exposure intervals of up to 6 h. Exposure to TXL concentrations as low as 0.01 μM for 24 h caused internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which increased with dose escalation (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μM) of TXL. Although continuous exposure to 1.0 μM TXL for a period as short as 8 h produced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, this increased significantly with longer exposure intervals. In general there appears to be a threshold concentration and duration of exposure below which non of these three drugs activates endonucleolytic internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. This threshold is lower for the DNA-interactive drugs MTN and Ara-C but higher for the non-DNA-interactive drug TXL. Higher doses or prolonged treatments with the drugs produce random DNA fragmentation associated with necrotic cell death. These in vitro results may further improve our understanding of the antileukemic cytotoxic effects of these drugs, which may enable a more rational design of drug regimens for optimal treatment of AML.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)365-371
Number of pages7
JournalCancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Volume34
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1994

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Ara-C
  • DNA fragmentation
  • HL-60 cells
  • Mitoxantrone
  • Taxol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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