β2-microglobulin as a negative regulator of the immune system: High concentrations of the protein inhibit in vitro generation of functional dendritic cells

Jin Xie, Ying Wang, Muta E. Freeman, Bart Barlogie, Qing Yi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations

Abstract

Two common features in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma are elevated serum levels of β2-microglobulin (β2M) and activation or inhibition of the immune system. We hypothesized that β2M at high concentrations may have a negative impact on the immune system. In this study, we examined the effects of β2M on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). The addition of β2M (more than 10 μg/mL) to the cultures reduced cell yield, inhibited the up-regulation of surface expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-ABC, CD1a, and CD80, diminished their ability to activate T cells, and compromised generation of the type-1 T-cell response induced in allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reaction. Compared with control MoDCs, β2M-treated cells produced more interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-10. β2M-treated cells expressed significantly fewer surface CD83, HLA-ABC, costimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules and were less potent at stimulating allospecific T cells after an additional 48-hour culture in the presence of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β. During cell culture, β2M down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), and mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK), inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) in treated cells, all of which are involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. Thus, our study demonstrates that β2M at high concentrations retards the generation of MoDCs, which may involve down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, inactivation of Raf/MEK/ERK cascade and NF-κB, and activation of STAT3, and it merits further study to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4005-4012
Number of pages8
JournalBlood
Volume101
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Immunology
  • Hematology
  • Cell Biology

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