Two common features in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma are elevated serum levels of β2-microglobulin (β2M) and activation or inhibition of the immune system. We hypothesized that β2M at high concentrations may have a negative impact on the immune system. In this study, we examined the effects of β2M on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). The addition of β2M (more than 10 μg/mL) to the cultures reduced cell yield, inhibited the up-regulation of surface expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-ABC, CD1a, and CD80, diminished their ability to activate T cells, and compromised generation of the type-1 T-cell response induced in allogeneic mixed-lymphocyte reaction. Compared with control MoDCs, β2M-treated cells produced more interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-10. β2M-treated cells expressed significantly fewer surface CD83, HLA-ABC, costimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules and were less potent at stimulating allospecific T cells after an additional 48-hour culture in the presence of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β. During cell culture, β2M down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), and mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK), inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) in treated cells, all of which are involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. Thus, our study demonstrates that β2M at high concentrations retards the generation of MoDCs, which may involve down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, inactivation of Raf/MEK/ERK cascade and NF-κB, and activation of STAT3, and it merits further study to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology